Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology
The Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology was founded in1944 on the basis of Department of Pathology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine. The founder and first director of the Institute (from 1944 to 1958) was Andrey D. Speransky– the outstanding pathologist, a follower of the Nobel Prize winner Ivan Pavlov. In subsequent years the directors of the Institute were:
· Vladimir N. Chernigovsky (1958-1959)
· Vasily V. Parin (1960-1965)
· Alexey M. Chernukh (1965-1982)
· Georgy N. Kryzhanovsky (1982-2001)
· Aslan A. Kubatiev (2001-present)
Research activities of the Institute include the study of general biological regularities and basic mechanisms of disregulatory pathology of organs and systems, pathological integrations, the search for new pathogenetically-based techniques of prophylaxis and therapy. Fundamental and applied research on molecular and cellular aspects of pathophysiology, nanobiotechnology, nanopathology, functional genomics, metabolomics and lipidomics are actively developed. Theinnovative technologies that control over the organism functions interms of pathology such as genomics, nano- and microfluidic, cellular, tissue-engineered, bioengineered, bioinformatics, adaptive, cognitive, gravitational, and immunocorrective technologies play the important role in the activity of the Institute.
Center for Collective Use of precision scientific equipment and three research and education centers such as Medical Cellular Technologies, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Athero- and thrombogenesis are set up.
The headquarters of two Russian scientific societies (the Russian Scientific Society of pathophysiology and the Russian Scientific Society of pain research), as well as two Scientific Councils of the RAMS on general pathology and pathophysiology and on the problems of hypoxia) are developed on the basis of the Institute. The Institutewas the initiator and organizer of the two international scientific societies (International Society for Pathophysiology andthe International Society for Adaptive Medicine).
The institute staff collaborates with the scientists from the USA, Canada, Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain,Turkey, Japan, Hungary, Denmark, Switzerland, Poland and other countries. They are the members of the leading bodies of more than 15 international scientific and social organizations.
The Institute has a complete set of equipment for the molecular and cell culturestudies. Transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, confocal laser microscope, fluorescent microscopes are used in morphological research;high-performance liquid chromatographs, mass spectrometers, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry – for biochemical and neurochemicalresearch; equipment for the research and manufacture of biochips, the last-generation ultracentrifuges, high-performance biochemical analyzer, lumi-aggregometers– for cell aggregation research in whole blood,equipment for the enzyme immunoassay. The institute also has modern equipment for electrophysiological and behavioral studies.
There are 23 scientific laboratories, united into 5 departments, where 5 academicians of the RAMS, 4 corresponding members of the RAMS andone corresponding member of RAS, 8 winners of the State Prize of theUSSR and Russia, two of the RF Government Prize winners, 8 HonoredScientists of Russia, 3 Lenin Komsomol Prize Laureates, 56 Doctors of Science and 88 PhDs are working.
The Institute takes an active part in the education. Severalfield-oriented academic departments of the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education and Moscow Institute of Open Education work on the basis of the Institute. The two heads of laboratories also run the departments at the Moscow State Medical and Dental University and Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology. Another 19 members of the Institute teach in thefield-oriented departments of various Moscow universities, including the Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Pirogov Russian State Medical University.
For many decades the Institute has provided postgraduate education and doctorate in pathophysiology, as well as the residency training inneurology.
The Institute provides also a specialized scientific DissertationBoard for Doctor of Science and Doctor in Philosophy degrees.
The Institute is a founder of two peer-reviewed scientific journals: "Pathogenesis" and "Pathological Physiology and Experimental Therapy."
Each year the Institute staff publishes on the average 150 papers inrefereed journals of national and 50 articles in prestigiousinternational journals (Cell, Nature, PNAS, Amer. Journal Physiology,etc.).
In 2010 and 2011, the Institute was awarded with Diplomas and goldmedals "100 best research institutions and organizations of Russia."